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The requirement of to know the geological structure and the lithology of the rocks in progress on the excavation of the tunnels, always has demonstrated like a prevailing element in phase of construction of the same tunnels. To reduce the "geological surprise" in the phase of planning of the galleries are asked researches even more detailed until to the realization of the horizontal perforations long the board of progress or of the "tunnel pilot". The geophysics survey, which more often is used in preliminary phase of research, has gone evolving, species in the employment of the seismic reflection to high resolution and in the different application of the seismic refraction for the study of the geological profile long the board of the tunnel. Both methods brought good results as regards the definition of the structural set up present in the area of study.  In general the survey with the seismic reflection technique allows us to reach greater depths with substantially similar configurations, while the seismic refraction technique allows us to come to a more precise definition of the portion of the section nearest to the surface, where seismic reflection is less sensitive. However, a verification of the model with the two seismic methods allows us to better relate the geological structures interpreted at a depth with the surface outcrop and to verify the speed analysis adopted for the interpretation of the seismic reflection. The seismic speeds calculated with seismic refraction may also be used directly to estimate the degree to which the rock in the tunnel can be excavated.

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Studio di Geologia e Geofisica
Strada Massetana Romana 56 - 53100 Siena Italy
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SGG - Centroamérica S.A.
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